Book Review: “The Gospel of Jesus Christ” – Paul Washer

Gospel Washer

Taken from the blurb on the back of this volume: “Paul Washer ministered as a missionary in Peru for ten years, during which time he founded the HeartCry Missionary Society to support Peruvian church planters. Paul now serves as one of the laborers with the HeartCry Missionary Society (www.heartcrymissionary.com). He and his wife, Charo, have three children; Ian, Evan, and Rowan.”

I don’t think there is a single living man that I have never met that has done more for my spiritual life than brother Paul Washer. His passion, devotion, piety and humanness demand one’s attention and respect. He has taught me how to preach, how to pray, how to date and how to study the Bible unlike anyone else. I owe much to brother Paul though he does not know it.

When I saw that brother Paul began to write full length books I was elated! His series “Recovering the Gospel” put out by Reformation Heritage Books contains three volumes of scripture saturated truths about the message of the gospel and the effects it has on those who believe it.

This 28-page pamphlet titled “The Gospel of Jesus Christ” seems to be a succinct presentation of the marrow of those three volumes. If I could read, give away to my congregation and re-read only one book on the gospel it would be this pithy volume by brother Paul. I have already given many away.

This book is clear, concise and even devotional. Though this volume is short, brother Paul cuts no corners in his presentation of the gospel’s truths. “The central message of Christian is the gospel of Jesus Christ … Indeed, it offers the only solution to our most pressing crises. No educational program, political party, or psychological therapy is able to address the deepest problem of the human race … The gospel reveals that God has come and won the victory for us. It is good news precisely because it is not about what we have done or can do, but what God has done and will do on behalf of His people. The gospel declares divine intervention into a hopeless world.” (pg.1) This is just in the opening two paragraphs!

He continues to sum up the gospel by saying, “His [Christ’s] death satisfied the demands of God’s justice against sinners and made it possible for a just God to pardon them. His resurrection three days later testified that He is the Son of God and that God accepted His death as full payment for our sin.” (pg.1) After this introduction every statement is supported by many Biblical citations. Paul obviously wants us to look to the Bible and not to him to find the truths he espouses.

Brother Paul conveniently breaks the book up into sections which plainly lay out for us in bite-size portions the anatomy of the gospel. He begins with the character of God, that He is love, but at the same time holy and righteous. Because of God’s righteousness He must by nature, “judge every person according to the standard that has been revealed to them. There will come a day in which God will judge everyone according to the strictest standards of justice and fairness, rewarding the good that is done and punishing the evil.” (pg.4)

This glimpse of God in His holiness, Paul writes, “humbles us and threatens to undo us.” (pg.5) This leads us into the next category, “The Character of Humanity” (pg.5). He walks us through scripture after scripture showing us that humanity is morally corrupt and stands guilty/condemned before God.

Brother Paul leads his readers to the main point and thrust of the gospel, what he calls “The Great Dilemma” (pg.7). What is this dilemma? It is that God is just and therefore cannot pardon the wicked. “How can God be just, yet pardon those who should justly be condemned? How can God be holy, yet befriend those who are evil? Anyone who justifies the wicked is an abomination to the Lord (Proverbs 17:15). How then can the Lord justify sinners like us and still be just (Romans 3:26)?” (pg.7)

Paul tells us that the only answer he can find is the one God gives, “God’s Answer to our Dilemma”. “The answer to this greatest of all dilemmas can be found only in the gospel. In justice, God condemned humanity and demanded complete satisfaction for our crimes against Him. In love, God took humanity upon Himself, bore our sin, suffered the penalty we deserved, and died in our place. The same God whose justice demanded satisfaction for our sin made satisfaction by offering Himself in our place. This is what makes the gospel truly good news!” (pg.7)

Brother Paul proves this statement in the following sections where he gives an exposition of this paragraph looking into the Scriptures at every turn. He walks us through topics concerning the gospel like: “Jesus Christ, Our Substitute”, “The Cross”, “Christ Bore Our Sin”, “Christ Suffered Our Curse”, “Christ Was Forsaken by God in Our Place”, “Christ Suffered the Wrath of God for Us” and “Christ Died in Our Place”. (pgs.7-12) Coming to the topic of the resurrection he includes the following sections: “The Resurrection Is Proof That Jesus Is the Son of God”, “The Resurrection Is Proof That God Accepted Christ’s Death as Full Payment for Our Sin”, “The Resurrection Is Proof of the Believer’s Future Resurrection” and “The Resurrection Is Proof That the World Has a Lord and a Judge”.

The next section is “Christ’s Accomplishment” where brother Paul writes on the peace we have with God now through Christ’s finished work!

In true Puritanistic and Spurgeonistic fashion he leads us to the application of the gospel doctrines just taught. How do we respond? He covers this in the section titled, “Our Response” (pg.14) where he talks about repentance (change of thought, emotion and action) and Self-Examination. Brother Paul even leads readers through what true saving faith looks like.

Brother Paul’s pastoral heart shines through in his section, “The Assurance of Salvation”. Once we have a true understanding of the gospel, “How Then Shall We Live?” he asks. He stresses the importance of Bible study, prayer, baptism, fellowship within a Biblically-sound Church, sanctification, service in the local church and service in the mission field.

I cannot recommend this little volume on the gospel highly enough. I have benefited from it greatly in my own personal life and hope many others in my congregation will also! Pick up and read, tolle lege!

You can purchase this volume from Reformation Heritage Books HERE or from Amazon HERE. Paul’s recovering the gospel series can also be purchased from RHB HERE.

 

Karl Barth and Scripture’s Witness to God’s Gracious Election

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What did Karl Barth have to say about his use of Scripture in forming his doctrine of election?

As strictly as possible we have let our questions be dictated by the answers which are already present in the revelation of God attested in Holy Scripture.” (CD II.2 pg.3)

I do not have the volumes of the CD in which Barth engages with Scripture, his prolegomena to dogmatics. Thus I will be relying heavily on Otto Weber’s “Karl Barth’s Church Dogmatics: An Introductory Report” to help me traverse the rugged terrain which is Karl Barth’s theology of Scripture.

Beginning his discussion of “The Problem of a Correct Doctrine of the Election of Grace” Barth refers back to himself in the previous volume (the doctrine of God) stating: “We took as our starting-point what God Himself said and still says concerning God, and concerning the knowledge and reality of God, by way of the self-testimony which is accessible and comprehensible because it has been given human form in Holy Scripture, the document which is the very essence and basis of the Church.” (CD II.2 pg.3) Very well! It seems as though Barth has a high view of Scripture (some would argue even higher than Fundamentalists). What a great statement Barth has made that Scripture “is the very essence and basis of the Church“. Amen! Otto Weber even states that for Barth, “The doctrine of Scripture is, therefore, at once a doctrine of the Church.” (Weber, pg.57) I greatly appreciate this. To me it seems that so many have forgotten (or neglected) that fact that Scripture is a gift given to the Church by God whereby we might know Him!

In light of the fact that Scripture has been given to the Church Barth goes on to say, “we have listened gratefully to the voices of the Church as well, both old and new. But we have continually measured those voices by the only voice which can reign in the Church. Whether we could follow them or not, we allowed ourselves to use them only in order that we might learn the better to hear and understand that voice which reigns in the Church as the source and norm of all truth… It was in that way that we rendered our account of what is pure and correct doctrine in this matter.” (CD. II.2 pg.4) Since Scripture is the human form of God’s revelation of Jesus Christ given to the Church we truly ought to hear what the Church has had to say about it throughout the ages. But what is this “voice” for Barth? Is it merely a static voice encased in the Bible as a if it were a “paper pope, which, in contrast to the one at Rome, who after all is a living pope, was now delivered into the hands of its expositors …(583 [Otto’s citation of CD’s page number, Volume I.2])!” (Weber, pg.61)?

For Barth, which I greatly appreciate, Scripture is not a static voice, it is not as the Reformers said their opponents treated it as, as “a wax nose”, which could be molded to fit into whatever body of divinity they chose. No (or should I say “NEIN”)! It is more than this. Even the Bible itself says that the word of God “is living and active” (Heb. 4:12 ESV). But what is this word and what is this voice? Barth answers: “But the voice which reigns, the voice by which we were taught by God Himself concerning God, was the voice of Jesus Christ.” (CD II.2 pg.4)  Here we see Barth’s Christocentric method of doing theology applied even to the doctrine of Scripture. “Theology must begin with Jesus Christ, and not with general principles, however better, or, at any rate, more relevant and illuminating, they may appear to be : as though He were a continuation of the knowledge of the Word of God, and not its root and origin, not indeed the very Word of God itself. Theology must also end with Him, and not with supposedly self-evident general conclusions from what is particularly enclosed and disclosed in Him.” (CD II.2 pg.4) The voice Barth attempts to hear is the word of God, or should I write, Word of God, Jesus Christ. In beginning his doctrine of election he reminds his readers that his previous dogmatic undertakings and in those which are to come, will be governed by the voice of Jesus Christ made human in Holy Scripture. He writes: “The obscurities and ambiguities of our way were illuminated in the measure that we held fast to that name and in the measure that we let Him be the first and the last, according to the testimony of Holy Scripture.” (CD II.2 pg.4) And, “So long as we remained true to the witness of Holy Scripture there was no alternative but to follow this line and to hold fast by it. For witnessing to God, the Old and New Testament Scriptures also witness to this name, and to the fulness of God which it encloses and represents, which cannot be separated from it, which cannot precede or follow it, but in it begins and continues and ends.” (CD II.2 pg.5)

Jesus Christ is the voice we must hear speaking to us in Scripture. How could I not AMEN! such a statement? But what am I really amen-ing? In all this talk of Jesus Christ as the Word of God what is really Barth’s view of Holy Scripture?

In beginning his doctrine of God’s revelation Otto Weber tells us that “he did not proceed from the question about the possibility of revelation but from its reality.” (Weber, pg.57) I can rejoice in this about Barth! God Himself does not attempt to prove His revelation but simply reveals Himself. But what does this have to do with the common Evangelical assertion that the Bible itself is God’s word? Does Barth hold to such a view? “‘The Bible is the witness to revelation,’ is for its part grounded in the fact ‘that the Bible has actually given an answer to our question about God’s revelation, in that it has placed God’s sovereignty before our eyes.’ (CD I.2 pg.511).” (Weber, pg.57) For Barth it seems that the Bible is “a witness”. “It is to be distinguished from revelation ‘insofar as it is only a human word about it’ (CD I.2 pg.512).” (Weber, pg.57) The Bible is the witness of men. “What – according to its own declarations – gives it then such a patently distinguished position? The answer first of all is to the effect that it is the content of this witness. Hence it is the fact ‘that in its decisive center it attests the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead” (CD I.2 pg.538), and the fact that its witness awakens faith and just therein proves to be God’s self-attestation.” (Weber, pg.58) This does not negate the fact that those men through whom the Biblical witness is given were indeed “special men”. They were “men who ‘had the unique and contingent function of the first witnesses’ (CD I.2 pg.539), and whose existence is ‘the existence of Christ for us and for all men’ (CD I.2 pg.539)! They have ‘seen and heard in a way that happens but once’ (CD I.2 pg.543).” (Weber, pg.59) So is the Bible God’s word or not Dr. Barth?! Weber goes on, “‘Holy Scripture, as the original and legitimate witness to God’s revelation, is God’s Word itself’ (CD I.2 pg.557)” (Weber, pg.59) But Barth does not mean this in the same way that a Fundamentalist means it when he says that the Bible is God’s word.

For Barth this also means that the Bible being a human word, it is therefore not without error. This is seen in his doctrine of inspiration, the doctrine of theopneusty (from 2Tim. 3:16 in Greek θεόπνευστος theopneustos, meaning literally “God-breathed”).

We pick up with Barth in his exegesis of 2Tim. 3:16,17 “All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, that the man of God may be complete, equipped for every good work.” (ESV) Barth renders θεόπνευστος as “divinely spiritual”. “That is, it is ‘impregnated, filled, and governed by God’s Spirit … God’s Spirit breathing, diffusing, illuminating it.’ (CD I.2 pg.559).” (Weber, pg.59) We have to remember that for Barth, God’s grace is eternal, free, and unchanging, and thus so are all His ways and works, including the way in which He uses Scripture as the human witness to revelation. Weber reminds us, “It is the mystery of ‘free grace’ which here rises resplendent over Scripture.” (Weber, pg.59)

The next passage Barth looks at is 2Peter 1:19-21 “And we have the prophetic word (τόν προφητικὸν λόγον) more fully confirmed, to which you will do  well to pay attention as to a lamp shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts, knowing first of all, that no prophecy of Scripture (προφητεία γραφῆς) comes from someone’s own interpretation. For no prophecy was ever produced by the will of man (θελήματι ἀνθρώπου), but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit (ἀλλ᾽ὑπὸ πνεύματος ἁγίου φερόμενοι ἐλάλησαν ἀπὸ θεοῦ ἄνθρωποι).” (ESV) Weber notes that for Barth, “in both instances there is no occasion to think of special experiences of the authors or of the godly men who spoke.The important thing is that theopneusty ‘within the circumference of Biblical thought’ can only signify the ‘special attitude of obedience of the men elected and called to this admittedly special service” (CD I.2 pg.560)” (Weber, pg.60) For Barth, Scripture is God’s word when Jesus Christ speaks to us through it, “Both texts, together with the concept of theopneusty, refer us to the present, ‘to the event which takes place in ourselves.’ But they only refer us to it. Theopneusty has in view what Scripture ‘was’ and ‘will be,’ and ‘indirectly’ also what it is (CD I.2 pg.561).” (Weber, pg.60) Therefore, for Barth, Scripture is not static, it is at the disposal of the free grace of the free and eternal God who loves in freedom.

It is here that we see Barth’s view of Scripture falling short of what most Fundamentalists and conservative Evangelicals believe, that the Bible is inerrant or without error. We again listen to Weber, “Moreover, Barth emphasizes that in such an understanding of inspiration the human imperfection of the Biblical witnesses, yes, even the ‘assailability’ of their theological statements, is to be soberly acknowledged – just as Israel, from whom the Biblical witness stems, is also ‘the one natural proof of the existence of God he has given’ and is a living witness of the freely electing God in, and in spite of, the fact that she is open to attack (CD I.2 pg.563 ff.). Applying this to Scripture we can say that the human word we hear in it is not in every case appropriate, but it is an elected, and, in this election, an authoritative human word. The essential thing in the concept of theopneusty is that God acts upon the witnesses and upon the hearers of the witness, and, what is more, upon both in the revelation of his mystery (cf. 1Cor. 2:6-16). God’s ‘self-disclosure in its totality is theopneusty, the inspiration of the prophetic, apostolic word” (CD I.2 pg.573).” (Weber, pg.60) Again we might ask, what then makes this human witness to God’s revelation God’s word? How can it be God’s word if it is open to error, even in its theological statements?! “‘Scripture is recognized as God’s Word by the fact that it is God’s Word’ (CD I.2 pg.597). There is no means in this world by which that fact can be proved. It can only be confessed – but even then not haphazardly. And just because this confession has its ground and truth in God’s Holy Spirit, theology’s weakest spot is also the place at which it ‘possesses all its imperishable strength.’ (CD I.2 pg.598).” (Weber, pg.61)

It seems that for Barth God’s Word is the fallible human witness to the voice of Jesus Christ which speaks in it. This I cannot amen to. I would say that Scripture is God’s infallible witness to Jesus Christ given through fallible human beings. Although I am quite intrigued by the idea that the Bible becomes God’s Word when we hear the voice of Jesus Christ in it. I would say I agree to a certain extent. The Bible speaks to us as God’s Word by the witness of the Holy Spirit to the person and work of Jesus Christ and in this it speaks authoritatively in all matters of faith and practice.

I appreciate Barth’s determination to build his doctrine of election only by the voice of Jesus Christ heard in Scripture, but sadly in the first 14 pages of CD II.2 there are only FOUR Biblical quotations. Maybe this is the nature of dogmatics? Or is Barth not being true to his own goal?

Christ the Neglected Prophet

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The Westminster Divines affirmed the threefold office of Christ when they wrote in Chapter eight section one of their Confession of Faith, “It pleased God, in His eternal Purpose, to Choose and ordain the Lord Jesus, His only begotten Son, to be the Mediator between God and man; the Prophet, Priest, and King, the Head and Saviour of His Church, the Heir of all things, and Judge of the world”. We see that the Divines desired us to observe that Jesus Christ, in His mediatorial office, accomplishes our redemption in three distinct functions, namely those of Prophet, Priest, and King. Christ is the mediator between God and man (1Tim. 2:5). A mediator is one who interposes between two parties at disagreement in order to obtain reconciliation. Prior to the fall a mediator between God and man was not necessary, for “though there was an infinite distance in nature, yet, there was no variance between these parties.”1 After the fall of man this situation was altered forever, for God was dishonored and sinned against and man was alienated from God and subjected to God’s judicial displeasure and punishment. Man is unable to satisfy the demands of the divine law which he transgressed, thus if man is ever to be restored to fellowship with his creator he must have the interposition of another who is able to satisfy the demands thereof. That person is the Lord Jesus Christ. The whole work of Christ’s mediation is acceptable to God, for God himself gave Christ the task of fulfilling the divine demands of the law; “For I came down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me.” (John 6:38); “In this was manifested the love of God toward us, because that God sent his only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through him. Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins.” (1John 4:9,10).

The teaching of Christ’s threefold office is found in the prophecy of Isaiah 61 verse one, “The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me; because the LORD hath anointed me to preach good tiding unto the meek (as a prophet); He hath sent me to bind up the brokenhearted (as a priest); to proclaim liberty to the captives (as a king).”2 This teaches us that God intervenes between himself and man not merely by pleading and persuasion, but with a true absolute power, effectually making peace by accomplishing all that is necessary to that end in the person of the mediator, the God-man Jesus Christ. The appointment of God the Father for Christ in fulfilling his threefold office of mediator assures us that the whole work of his mediation is most acceptable to God and affords us the highest encouragement to rely upon his finished work for our eternal salvation. These offices of Christ are a trinity of sorts. They are the three disclosures of the one office of mediator, not three offices but three functions of the one indivisible office of mediator. “These are not three distinct offices meeting accidentally in one office, but three functions inhering essentially in the one office of mediator. And they each so belong to the very essence of the office that the quality peculiar to each gives character to every mediatorial action. When he teaches, he is always priestly and kingly prophet. When he offers sacrifice or intercession for sin, he is always a prophetical and royal priest.”3

This being true, one function of the threefold office tends to receive less attention and study; the function of Christ as Prophet. Scripturally, a prophet is a spokesman for God; one who is sent from God to man in order to make known the will of God. Any man receiving a revelation from God, or inspired in the communication of it, is, in the Scriptures, called a prophet. The common phrases ‘the word of the Lord came unto me’ (Isa. 38:4; Jer. 1:4,11,13; 2:1; 13:3,8; 16:1; 18:5; 29:30; Ez. 6:1; 7:1; 11:14; 12:1; Hos. 1:1; Joel 1:1; Jonah 1:1; 3:1; Mic. 1:1; Zeph. 1:1; Hag. 1:3; Zech. 1:1; 4:8; 8:18; Mal. 1:1) and ‘thus says the Lord’ (Ex. 4:22; Isa. 7:7; 10:24; 22:15; 28:16; 38:5; 42:5; Jer. 2:5; 4:3; 14:10 etc.) show that a prophet is indeed a spokesman for God.

In spite of the fact that many more modern scholars have neglected the study of Christ’s mediatorial office of prophet, the Westminster Divines heartily acknowledged it in question 44 of the Larger Catechism and question 24 of the shorter. The answer to question 44 in the Larger gives a more full answer, reading, “Christ executeth the office of a prophet, in his revealing to the church, in all ages, by his Spirit and word, in divers ways of administration, the whole will of God, in all things concerning their edification and salvation.” Christ therefore was the ultimate fulfillment of a prophet, more fully and perfectly revealing the will of God unto the world than any of the prophets of the Old Testament, “No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him” (John 1:18). In the stream of prophets given to us in Scripture Christ rests at the head. G.C. Berkouwer tells us that the Heidelberg Catechism speaks of Christ as our highest Prophet (Lord’s day XII question 31 ‘He is ordained of God the Father, and anointed with the Holy Ghost, to be our chief Prophet and Teacher, who fully reveals to us the secret counsel and will of God concerning our redemption;’), which implies a relationship with the Old Testament prophets but not an identification with them. “Christ does appear in the list of prophets (Matt. 21:33-46) but he cannot be explained simply as one of them because prophecy is fulfilled in him and derives its significance only from him.”4

But can we say that the Scriptures explicitly teach the Prophetic office of Christ? We answer a resounding yes. We see that Christ has been anointed as a prophet in Deuteronomy 18:15 “The LORD thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me.” Stephen pointed back to this verse in Acts 7:37 stating that in Jesus Christ that Scripture was fulfilled. Deuteronomy 18:15 was an important verse for the Old Testament Jews who were awaiting a great final prophet who would appear at the end of times. We are told in the New Testament that this verse was fulfilled in Christ (Acts 3:22). Notice at the end of verse fifteen, “harken ye unto him.” Christ is the Word, the voice of God speaking to us. “When the Messiah, the Christ, was predicted as a prophet it was predicted that He should be the great organ of God in communicating his mind and will to men.”5 On the mount of transfiguration Christ was declared to be a prophet unto his people when the Father spoke from the cloud that overshadowed them, saying, “Hear ye Him.” (Matt. 17:5). Even the people of Jesus day recognized him as a prophet sent from God, “And there came a fear on all: and they glorified God, saying, That a great prophet is risen up among us; and, That God hath visited his people.” (Luke 7:16).

As a prophet, Christ was infinitely greater than the Old Testament prophets, for they were sinful men proclaiming a divine message, whereas Christ was the sinless Word of God, “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” (John 1:1). They merely spoke the prophetic word unto the people, but Christ was the prophetic Word unto the people. The prophets of old were men taken and chosen by God from among the people to be his spokesmen, declaring his word and reproving Israel for sin. They were in essence no more than unworthy servants only doing their duty. Jesus Christ, on the other hand, “while he was the servant of God, was also the Son of God, equal with the Father from eternity.”6 Christ is the focus and fulfillment of all the prophets, “Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoke: Ought not the Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory? And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself.” (Luke 24:25-27); “And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.”(Luke 24:44 emphasis mine); “For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me.” (John 5:46); “Of which salvation the prophets have inquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you: Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow. Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister the things, which are now reported unto you by them that have preached the gospel unto you with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven; which things the angels desired to look into.” (1Pet. 1:10-12).

The teaching of the prophets did carry authority, but it was only a derived authority, whereas Christ taught with complete authority, “I am… the truth” (John 14:6). Furthermore, Christ is said to speak the very words of God, “For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him” (John 3:34). Unlike the merely human prophets, “whatever he [Christ] speaks is free from arbitrariness and selfwilledness.”7 When Christ speaks, he speaks as a prophet, he speaks the very words of God and nothing else, “as I hear, I judge” (John 5:30). His doctrine is not his own, but that of the Father, the one who sent him, “My doctrine is not mine, but his that sent me.” (John 7:16) Christ speaks as the Father has taught him, “When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then shall ye know that I am he, and that I do nothing of myself; but as my Father hath taught me, I speak these things.” (John 8:28) This shows Christ’s obedience and submissiveness as prophet. Again, Christ does not simply testify to the truth as the prophets did, he is the truth. “A prophet spoke God’s word only when under the influence of the Spirit of God. Otherwise he was an ordinary fallen man, sinful and weak. Jesus, on the other hand, who is our Lord, Spoke on his own authority.”8

Lest we think that Christ was unaware of his office as prophet the Scripture gives clear testimony to the self realization of Christ as prophet, “Verily I say unto you, No prophet is accepted in his own country.” (Luke 4:34); “Nevertheless I must walk today, and tomorrow, and the day following: for it cannot be that a prophet perish out of Jerusalem.” (Luke 13:33) Jesus never once specifically claimed to be a prophet, but all the necessary elements of the office of prophet are present. In a way, Jesus “transcends prophetism… for he himself is the truth to which the prophets bore witness.”9 Jesus Christ is the culmination of God’s speech to mankind, “God who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, but whom also he made the worlds.” (Heb. 1:1,2)

What then are the duties that Christ fulfills as prophet? “The prophetical office of Christ is that part of His Mediatorial office by which He, both in the Old and New Testament, reveals the entire counsel of God concerning the salvation of the elect, and explains it for their spiritual enlightenment.”10 It is Christ’s duty in his office of mediator to communicate any and all divine knowledge to his intelligent creatures. This he does in his office as prophet. As prophet Christ fulfills the outward or external spreading of divine truth and the inward or internal enlightening of the human heart by the Holy Spirit.

Christ teaches outwardly by His Word, “Faith cometh by hearing and hearing by the word of God [Christ].” (Rom. 10:17) The expectation of the messiah was that “when he is come, he will tell us all things.” (John 4:25) Christ, as prophet, is a teacher who is come from God (John 3:2), therefore he must tell all things. It is to Christ alone that the preaching and publishing of the gospel is ascribed, “I have preached righteousness in the great congregation: lo, I have not refrained My lips, O LORD, Thou knowest. I have not hid Thy righteousness within My heart; I have declared Thy faithfulness and Thy salvation.” (Ps. 40:10,11); “The Spirit of the Lord God is upon Me; because the Lord hath anointed Me to preach good tidings unto the meek.” (Isa. 61:1). Christ propounds the word of God unto his people and enlightens their understanding (Luke 24:45). “We see that he was anointed by the Spirit to be herald and witness of the Father’s grace.”11 Thomas Watson said that Christ, in his office as prophet, was the best teacher, for “he not only opened the Scriptures, but opened their understanding.”12 Jesus was not merely a messenger of revelation from God as all the other Old Testament prophets were, but was himself the source of revelation from God. He did not say, as the Old Testament prophets did, ‘Thus says the Lord,’ rather Jesus taught with divine authority, saying to the crowds who were staring on in amazement, ‘I say unto you’. The word of the Lord came to the Old Testament prophets, but Jesus spoke on his own authority as the eternal Word of God, who perfectly reveals the Father unto his people “he that hath seen me hath seen the Father … the words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself: but the Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works.” (John 14:9,10). “All the prophets under the Old Testament, however eminent were but Stars, and borrowed all their light from the Sun of righteousness.”13

The great theologian Charles Hodge tells us that Christ outwardly or externally fulfilled his office as prophet by his personal instruction, discourses, parables, and expositions of the law and of the prophets; in all of which he taught concerning himself.14 Thus, the prophetical ministry of Christ is indispensable to salvation, for Christ alone teaches the way of salvation.

Nonetheless, this is not the only way Christ fulfilled his prophetic office; he also fulfilled it internally. As prophet, Christ enlightens the understandings of his people, which have become darkened through sin “For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.” (2Cor. 4:6) In this, Christ glorifies his prophetical ministry in the hearts of the elect by enlightening the eyes of their understanding “But ye have an unction from the Holy One, and ye know all things…. And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, ever in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life.” (John 2:20;5:20).

Christ’s office as prophet does not stand alone but is interwoven with his priestly and kingly offices as mediator. His preaching as prophet is a calling of sinners to repentance and conversion, a preaching through which people see a great light (Matt. 4:16), a preaching of the kingdom of heaven surrounded by the signs of his kingship in the healing of the sick, casting out of demons, and raising of the dead. “The prophetic office is wholly directed to the coming of the kingdom, which in turn is directly connected with the priestly office.”15 These offices of prophet, priest and king in function are abstractly distinguishable, but in their exercise they qualify one another in every action. “Thus, when he teaches [as prophet], he is essentially a royal and priestly teacher, and when he rules [as king] he is a priestly and prophetical king, and when he either atones or intercedes [as priest] he is a prophetical and kingly priest.”16 We see then that the three functions of the one office of mediator are intimately connected and that one cannot function properly without the others.

The neglected prophet, Jesus Christ, must be studied and lifted up once again as he was in the days of the Westminster divines. We conclude by saying that Christ is a prophet, and as the Redeemer of his people, executes that office, in revealing to them, by his word and Spirit, the will of God for their salvation; doing this both “in the external and the internal, by which he not only outwardly reaches the ears of our body by his word, but also inwardly turns and opens the heart by his Spirit and leads it into all truth (John 16:13).”17

1 Robert Shaw, The Reformed Faith: an Exposition of the Westminster Confession of Faith, Revised ed. (Ross-Shire, Scottland: Christian Heritage, 2008), 139.

2 Rev. G.H. Kersten, Reformed Dogmatics: A Systematic Treatment of Reformed Doctrine (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Netherlands Reformed Book and Publishing Committee), 280.

3 A. A. Hodge, Westminster Confession: a Commentary (Carlissle, Penn.: Banner of Truth, 2004), 134,135. 

4 G.C. Berkouwer, Studies in Dogmatics: The Work of Christ (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1946), 66.

5 Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology Vol.2 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans 1986), 463.

6 Robert Letham, The Work of Christ: Contours of Christian Theology (Downers Grove, Il.: Intervarsity Press, 1993), 92.

7 G.C. Berkouwer, Studies in Dogmatics: The Work of Christ (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1946), 67.

8 Robert Letham, The Work of Christ: Contours of Christian Theology (Downers Grove, Il.: Intervarsity Press, 1993), 94.

9 Robert Letham, The Work of Christ: Contours of Christian Theology (Downers Grove, Il.: Intervarsity Press, 1993), 94.

10 Rev. G.H. Kersten, Reformed Dogmatics: A systematic Treatment of Reformed Doctrine (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Netherlands Reformed Book and Publishing Committee), 281.

11 John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, Vol.1 (Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox, 2006), 496.

12 Thomas Watson, A Body of Divinity (Carlisle, PA: Banner of Truth, 2012), 166. 8

13 Thomas Boston, A Body of Divinity (Hartshill Road: Tentmaker, 2002), 411.

14 Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology Vol.2 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1986), 463. 9

15 G.C. Berkouwer, Studies in Dogmatics: The Work of Christ (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1946), 67.

16 A.A. Hodge, Outlines of Theology (Carlisle, PA.: Banner of Truth, 1999), 395.

17 Francis Turretin, Institutes of Elenctic Theology (Phillipsburg, New Jersey: P&R, 1994), 400. 10

Assembly, Westminster. Westminster Confession of Faith. Glasgow: Free Presbyterian Publications, 2003.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Shaw, Robert, The Reformed Faith: an Exposition of the Westminster of Faith, Revised Ed, Ross- shire, Scottland: Christian Heritage, 2009.

Kersten, Rev. G.H., Reformed Dogmatics: A Systematic Treatment of Reformed Doctrine, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Netherlands Reformed Book and Publishing Committee, 2009.

Hodge, A.A., Westminster Confession: a Commentary, Carlissle, PA.: Banner of Truth, 2004.

Berkouwer, G.C., Studies in Dogmatics: The Work of Christ, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1946.

Hodge, Charles, Systematic Theology: Vol.2, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans 1986.

Letham, Robert, The Work of Christ: Contours of Christian Theology, Downers Grove, Il.: Intervarsity, 1993.

Calvin, John, Institutes of the Christian Religion: Vol.1, Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox, 2006.

Watson, Thomas, A Body of Divinity, Carlisle, PA.: Banner of Truth, 2012.
Boston, Thomas, A Body of Divinity, Hartshill Road: Tentmaker, 2002.
Hodge, A.A., Outlines of Theology, Carlisle, PA.: Banner of Truth, 1999.
Turretin, Francis, Institutes of Elenctic Theology, Phillipsburg, New Jersey: P&R, 1994.